Detection and Classification of Defects Using ECT and Multi-level SVM model
Ribeiro, A. L.
IEEE Sensors Journal Vol. 20, Nº 5, pp. 2329 - 2338, March, 2020.
ISSN (print): 1530-437X
Journal Impact Factor: 1,610 (in 2008)
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2951302
In this work, classification of cracks in a non-ferromagnetic material (aluminum 1050) is presented using two supervised machine learning techniques called support vector machines (SVM) and decision tree. The classification performances between the two classifiers were evaluated using confusion matrices and miss-classification errors. In order to improve the classification performance, a multi-level SVM model is proposed wherein each level implements SVM using different features and kernels. The experimental tests were performed in two aluminum plates containing 18 defects with different depths and lengths. The 18 defects were inspected in the surface and sub-surface locations, resulting in a study of 36 different crack cases. The experimental data used to extract features for supervised machine learning were obtained using an eddy current testing (ECT) probe that includes a planar coil and a tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensor. The probe was excited by a multi-frequency signal with four testing frequencies to evaluate the dimensions and the locations of the defects. Due to the experimental noise existing in the measurement signals, it is important to pre-process the signals before feature extraction. Signal processing techniques (such as moving average filter, spline interpolation and symmetry corrections) were used before extracting the features for classification.