Directional dependence of the plasmonic gain and nonreciprocity in drift-current biased graphene
Morgado, T. A.
Silveirinha, M. G.
Nanophotonics Vol. 11, Nº 21, pp. 4929 - 4936, November, 2022.
ISSN (print): 2192-8606
Scimago Journal Ranking: 2,01 (in 2022)
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1515/nanoph-2022-0451
Here, we investigate the nonreciprocal propagation and amplification of surface plasmons in drift-current biased graphene, using both Galilean and relativistic-type Doppler shift transformations of the graphene’s conductivity. Consistent with previous studies, both conductivity models predict strongly nonreciprocal propagation of surface plasmons due to the drag effect caused by the drifting electrons. In particular, the Galilean Doppler shift model leads to stronger spectral asymmetries in the plasmon dispersion with regimes of unidirectional propagation. Remarkably, it is shown that both conductivity models predict regimes of nonreciprocal plasmon amplification in a wide angular sector of in-plane directions when the drift-current biased graphene sheet is coupled to a plasmonic substrate (namely, SiC), with the plasmon amplification rate being substantially higher for the relativistic Doppler shift model.