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Design and Characterization of an IQ Reflection-Type Vector Modulator for Ka-Band Using PIN Diodes

Arruela, R. ; MARINHO, D. ; Varum, T. ; Matos, J. N.

IEEE Access Vol. 8, Nº , pp. 212855 - 212864, November, 2020.

ISSN (print): 2169-3536
ISSN (online):

Journal Impact Factor: (in )

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3040701

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Abstract
Vector modulators (VM) and phase shifters are essential components in phased array antennas with electronic beam steering. This work presents an IQ reflection-type vector modulator using PIN diodes, designed and implemented to operate at 28 GHz. An extensive characterization was carried out, especially concerning bandwidth and input/output return losses. This modulator is capable of producing a 360° phase shifting with a minimum attenuation of 14 dB at 28 GHz, and has a measured bandwidth of 3.6 GHz. A digital control system for the vector modulator was also developed, allowing to obtain pre-selected constellations points, with a measured 0.4 dB of maximum absolute error in amplitude and 2.6° in phase. Additionally, the designed VM was employed in a practical application, where analog beamforming is implemented in a 4×4 transmitter phased array allowing to perform a complete electronic control of the radiation pattern of the array.