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Reconciliation Efficiency Impact on Discrete Modulated CV-QKD Systems Key Rates

Almeida, M. ; Pereira, D. ; Facão, M. ; Pinto, A. N. ; Silva, N. A.

Journal of Lightwave Technology Vol. 41, Nº 19, pp. 6134 - 6141, May, 2023.

ISSN (print): 0733-8724
ISSN (online):

Scimago Journal Ranking: 1,51 (in 2022)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/JLT.2023.3280076

Continuous variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) allows the distribution of symmetric keys in a secure manner. CV-QKD systems can extract keys at its maximum rate when using Gaussian modulation (GM). Nonetheless, GM demands high-capacity random number sources and tends to be very hard to approach in practice. To circumvent these disadvantages, higher-order probabilistic -shaped discrete modulation (DM) can be used. State-of-the-art works compute the key rates of DM-CV-QKD systems considering a fixed value for the reconciliation efficiency and do not take into account the frame error rate (FER) of the system, thus over or under estimating the key rates. In this work, we study the security bounds of CV-QKD systems considering probabilistic shaped DM formats with 256-symbols in the finite-size regime. This accounting for the true value of the reconciliation efficiency, and the FER of the information reconciliation step. Both conventional and hexagonal 256-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations yield higher key rates than 256-amplitude and phase shift keying (APSK) constellations, with 256-QAM constellations being indistinguishable in performance with GM for high transmission distances. Minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values were fixed from a FER analysis through a CV-QKD simulation allowing for key extraction considering different FER levels. Lower FER values are associated with higher SNRs in the system and thus lower achievable transmission distances. Nonetheless, the FER maximizing the extraction key rate is not null. Our results show that the extraction key rate is maximized by SNR adjustment which should have in account both the reconciliation efficiency and the FER.