Performance Evaluation of GPS Auto-Surveying Techniques
Sensors Vol. 21, Nº 7374, pp. 1 - 17, November, 2021.
ISSN (print): 1424-3210
ISSN (online): 1424-8220
Scimago Journal Ranking: 0,80 (in 2021)
Digital Object Identifier: 10.3390/s21217374
With the increase in the widespread use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), increasing numbers of applications require precise position data. Of all the GNSS positioning methods, the most precise are those that are based in differential systems, such as Differential GNSS (DGNSS) and Real-Time Kinematics (RTK). However, for absolute positioning, the precision of these methods is tied to their reference position estimates. With the goal of quickly auto-surveying the position of a base station receiver, four positioning methods are analyzed and compared, namely Least Squares (LS), Weighted Least Squares (WLS), Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), using only pseudorange measurements, as well as the Hatch Filter and position thresholding. The research results show that the EKF and UKF present much better mean errors than LS and WLS, with an attained precision below 1 m after about 4 h of auto-surveying. The methods that presented the best results are then tested against existing implementations, showing them to be very competitive, especially considering the differences between the used receivers. Finally, these results are used in a DGNSS test, which verifies a significant improvement in the position estimate as the base station position estimate improves.