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Secret key rate of multi-ring M-APSK continuous variable quantum key distribution

Almeida, M. ; Pereira, D. ; Muga, N. J. ; Facão, M. ; Pinto, A. N. ; Silva, N. A.

Optics Express Vol. 29, Nº 23, pp. 38669 - 38669, November, 2021.

ISSN (print): 1094-4087
ISSN (online):

Scimago Journal Ranking: 1,39 (in 2020)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1364/OE.439992

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Abstract
Discrete modulation continuous variable quantum key distribution (DM-CV-QKD) is highly considered in real implementations to avoid the complexity of Gaussian modulation (GM), which is optimum in terms of the key rate. DM-CV-QKD systems usually consider M-symbol phase shift keying (M-PSK) constellations. However, this type of constellation cannot reach transmission distances and key rates as high as GM, limiting the practical implementation of CV-QKD systems. Here, by considering M-symbol amplitude and phase shift keying (M-APSK) constellations, we can approximate GM. Indeed, considering finite-size effects, 4 ring 64-APSK can reach 52.0 km, only 7.2 km less than GM and 282% the maximum achievable transmission distance for 8-PSK.