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The Influence of Antenna Height on the Measurement of Collective Variables Using an Ultra-Wide Band Based Local Positioning System in Team Sports

Pino-Ortega, J. ; Arcos, A. L. A. ; Gantois, P. ; Clemente, F.M.C. ; Nakamura, F. ; Rico-González, M.R.G.

Sensors Vol. 21, Nº 7, pp. 2424 - 2424, April, 2021.

ISSN (print): 1424-3210
ISSN (online): 1424-8220

Scimago Journal Ranking: 0,64 (in 2020)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.3390/s21072424

Abstract
Ultra-wide band (UWB) based local positioning systems (LPS) are based on devices and a portable antenna set. The optimal installation height of the antennae is crucial to ensure data accuracy. Collective variables are metrics that consider at least two pairs of coordinates, which may lead to lower precision than an individual one. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the influence of antenna height with collective metrics using a UWB (i.e., IMU; WIMU PRO™, RealTrack Systems, Almeria, Spain) based LPS. Data acquisition was carried out in a basketball court measuring 28 × 15 m. Five devices were used; one of which was carried by a healthy and well-trained athlete (age: 38 years, mass: 76.34 kg, height 1.70 m), while each of the remaining four was positioned on a tripod in one of the four corners of the court. Four kinds of variables were extracted: (1) static distances, (2) dynamic distances, (3) static areas and (4) dynamic areas in all antenna installation modes of 0.15, 1.30 and 2.00 m. The results showed that the antenna of 1.30 m provided better accuracy for all measures (% difference range from −0.94 to 1.17%) followed by the antenna of 2.00 m (% difference range from −2.50 to 2.15%), with the antenna of 0.15 m providing the worst accuracy level (% difference range from −1.05 to 3.28%). Overall, the measurements of distance metrics showed greater accuracy than area metrics (distance % difference range from −0.85 to 2.81% and area % difference range from −2.50 to 3.28). In conclusion, the height of the antennae in basketball courts should be similar to the height at which the devices are attached to a player’s upper back. However, as the precision is sensitive to the magnitude of the measure, further studies should assess the effects of the relative height of antennae in team sports with greater playing spaces.