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Fabrication, Measurement and Time Decay of the Electromagnetic Properties of Semi-Solid Water-Based Phantoms

Mendes, C. ; Peixeiro, C.

Sensors Vol. 19, Nº 19, pp. 4298 - 4298, October, 2019.

ISSN (print): 1424-3210
ISSN (online): 1424-8220

Scimago Journal Ranking: 0,65 (in 2019)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.3390/s19194298

Abstract
This paper presents a complete and detailed description of the fabrication and measurement of
the electromagnetic properties of water-based semi-solid phantoms with emphasis on the analysis of the
time evolution of the complex permittivity of several samples stored in different conditions. A known
recipe for a 2/3 muscle equivalent phantom is used as test material, and the several phantom sample
properties are measured with an in-house developed coaxial probe technique. It is shown that the storing
condition is of paramount importance to extend the lifetime of a given phantom. This behavior stems
from the way the storing condition affects the water evaporation rate of the sample. In particular, while
an unprotected sample can preserve its electromagnetic properties only for a few days, a very well-sealed one can last at least up to a year.