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A 2D Ray-Tracing Based Model for Wave Propagation Through Forests at Microand Millimeter Wave Frequencies

Leonor, N. ; Sanchez , M. ; Fernandes, T. ; Caldeirinha, Rafael

IEEE Access Vol. 6, Nº 1, pp. 32097 - 32108, May, 2018.

ISSN (print): 2169-3536
ISSN (online):

Journal Impact Factor: (in )

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2836223

This paper proposes the extension of a 2D ray-tracing based model for radiowave propagation in the presence of trees and vegetation areas to include real-sized trees and outdoor forest scenarios. The original propagation model proved to be suitable to characterize the electromagnetic behavior in the presence of indoor tree formation scenarios, despite some limitations found when applied to real-sized trees. Additionally, the original propagation model requires the prior knowledge of the trees' re-radiation function to extract the relevant propagation input parameters, which is not always possible to obtain in outdoor scenarios. Therefore, an empirical method to extract the relevant input propagation parameters based on simple measurements is proposed. The performance of the proposed propagation model extension is extensively assessed in both line-of-trees and tree formation scenarios, including various (and mixed) species, both in- and out-of-leaf foliation states, and at three signal frequencies. Finally, depending on the type of scenario, a benchmark between the proposed propagation model and both Radiative Energy Transfer (RET) and discrete RET (dRET) models, for line-of-trees and tree formation, respectively, is presented.