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Spectrum Sensing Performance in Cognitive Radio Networks with Multiple Primary Users

Furtado, A. ; Irio, L. ; Oliveira, R. ; Bernardo, L. ; Dinis, R.

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology Vol. 65, Nº 3, pp. 1564 - 1574, March, 2016.

ISSN (print): 0018-9545
ISSN (online):

Journal Impact Factor: 1,308 (in 2008)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/TVT.2015.2406254

Abstract
Radio Spectrum sensing has been a topic of strong research in the last years due to its importance to Cognitive Radio (CR) systems. However, in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) with multiple Primary Users (PUs), the Secondary Users (SUs) can often detect PUs that are located outside the sensing range, due to the level of the aggregated interference caused by that PUs. This effect, known as Spatial False Alarm (SFA), degrades the performance of CRNs, because it decreases the SUs’ medium access
probability. This work characterizes the SFA effect in a CRN, identifying possible actions to attenuate it. Adopting Energy-based sensing (EBS) in each SU, this work starts to characterize the interference caused by multiple PUs located outside a desired sensing region. The interference formulation is then used to write the probabilities of detection and false alarm, and closed form expressions are presented and validated through simulation. The first remark to be made is that the SFA can be neglected, depending on the path loss factor and the number of samples collected by the energy detector to decide the spectrum’s occupancy state. However, it is shown that by increasing the number of samples needed to increase the
sensing accuracy, the SUs may degrade their throughput, namely if SUs are equipped with a single radio that is sequentially used for sensing and transmission. Assuming this scenario, this paper ends by providing a bound for the maximum throughput achieved in a CRN with multiple active PUs and for a given level of PUs’ detection inside the SUs’ sensing region. The results presented in the paper show the impact of path loss and EBS parameterization on SUs’ throughput and are particularly useful to guide the design and parametrization of multi-hop CRNs, including future ad hoc cognitive radio networks considering multiple PUs.