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Cooperative Bicycle Localization System via Ad Hoc Bluetooth Networks

Aguiar, A. ; Santos, P. ; Rosa, M. ; Pinto, L.P

Cooperative Bicycle Localization System via Ad Hoc Bluetooth Networks, Proc IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference VNC, Conference Online, Vol. , pp. - , December, 2020.

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Abstract
Bicycles are becoming increasingly more equipped with embedded connected devices, by design or through aftermarket products, to support applications such as fitness monitoring
and tracking. Bluetooth (BT) and BT Low Energy
(BLE) technology is often embedded in such devices to support connectivity to a personal mobile device or a dock, when parked.
BT/BLE transmit periodic beacons for node discovery that can be explored for V2X applications, such as safety and fleet management. We present a distributed system that explores periodic BT beacons sent by a module embedded in a bicycle to opportunistically locate nodes of interest (NOI). We address the particular application of stolen bicycle detection. In a scenario in which a bicycle is stolen and has its communication system
tampered with but BLE remains functional, a service provider (e.g., fleet operator, authorities) is informed of this new NOI and shares an updated NOI list with the NOI detection-enabled bicycles. In turn, the bicycles flag contacts with stolen bicycles to the provider backoffice, at the earliest convenience (depending on available communications interfaces: immediately if cellular
is available, or opportunistically when passing by a dock). We describe the operation and software architecture of the system, and an actual implementation in COTS equipment. Experimental measurements of the communication range and a demonstration
of the system for proof-of-concept are also reported.