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Hypernetworks: Capturing the Multilayers of Cooperative and Competitive Interactions in Soccer

Tamos, J.P.R. ; Lopes, R.J. ; Marques, P. ; Araújo, D.

Hypernetworks: Capturing the Multilayers of Cooperative and Competitive Interactions in Soccer, Proc Complex Systems in Sport, International Congress Linking Theory and Practice, Barcelona, Spain, Vol. , pp. - , October, 2017.

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Hypernetwork theory brings together the micro–meso–macro levels ofanalysis of interaction-based complex systems (Johnson, 2013; Boccaletti et al., 2014).This study considers team synergies (Araújo and Davids, 2016), where teams andathletes are co-evolving subsystems that self-organize into new structures and behav-iors. The emergent couplings of players’ movements have been studied, consideringmostly the distance between a player and the immediate opponent (eg, Headrick etal., 2012), and other interpersonal distance measures (Passos et al., 2011; Fonseca etal., 2013). Such emergent interpersonal behavior of soccer teams can be captured bymultilevel hypernetworks approach that considers and represents simultaneously theminimal structure unit of a match (called simplex). More stable structures are calledbackcloth. The backcloth structure that represents soccer matches is not limited to thebinary relations (2-ary) studied successfully by social networks analysis (SNA) but canconsider also n-ary relations with n> 2. These simplices most of the times composed ofplayers from both teams (eg, 1 vs. 1, 2 vs. 1, 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 2) and the goals. In a higherlevel of representation, it is also possible to represent the events associated, like theinteractions between players and sets of players that could cause changes in the back-cloth structure (aggregations and disaggregation of simplices). The main goal of thisstudy was to capture the dynamics of the interactions between team players at differentscales of analysis (micro—meso—macro), either from the same team (cooperative) orfrom opponent team players (competitive).