Analysis of the Electromechanical Activity of the Heart from Synchronized ECG and PCG Signals of Subjects Under Stress.
Castro, A. C.
; Moukadem, A.M.
; Schmidt , S.S.
; Dieterlen, A.D.
Analysis of the Electromechanical Activity of the Heart from Synchronized ECG and PCG Signals of Subjects Under Stress., Proc International Joint Conf. on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies - BIOSTEC, Lisboa, Portugal, Vol. ., pp. . - ., January, 2015.
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In this exploratory study we propose to analyze, in healthy adult volunteers, the heart electrical (electrocardiogram, ECG) and mechanical (phonocardiogram, PCG) activity during exercise. Heart sounds amplitude, frequency content, and RS2, may be important features in the non-invasive assessment of heart activity, such as for the estimation of cardiac output and blood pressure. Nine healthy volunteers were monitored with ECG and PCG simultaneously, under a stress test. After each workload level a 10 s window of signal was collected. PCG first (S1) and second (S2) heart sounds were manually annotated, based on time of QRS complex occurrence. A QRS detector was implemented to detect the QRS complex, and time intervals between electrical and mechanical events. Extracted features were analyzed in relation to heart rate (HR), including RS2, S1 and S2 amplitudes, and high frequency content of S1 and S2. Spearman correlation was used. Changes between baseline and maximum workload stage/HR for each volunteer were analyzed. Significant correlation was observed between HR, and all characteristics extracted (P<0.01). There was a clear difference between all variables from baseline to maximum workload level: with increasing workload/HR heart sounds amplitude increased (more pronounced in S1), RS2 decreased, and high frequency content of S2 decreased in relation to the high frequency content of S1, demonstrating that dynamic cardiovascular relations are individualized during cardiac stress and that assumptions for resting conditions may not be assumed.