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FPGA-based Architecture for Hyperspectral Endmember Extraction

Rosário, JPJR ; Nascimento, J. ; Vestias, MV

FPGA-based Architecture for Hyperspectral Endmember Extraction, Proc Europe Remote Sensing - SPIE, Amesterdam, Netherlands, Vol. 9247, pp. 924703 - 924703-11, September, 2014.

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1117/12.2067039

Abstract
Hyperspectral instruments have been incorporated in satellite
missions, providing data of high spectral resolution of the Earth.
This data can be used in remote sensing applications, such as,
target detection, hazard prevention, and monitoring oil spills,
among others. In most of these applications, one of the requirements
of paramount importance is the ability to give real-time or near
real-time response.

Recently, onboard processing systems have emerged, in order to
overcome the huge amount of data to transfer from the satellite to
the ground station, and thus, avoiding delays between hyperspectral
image acquisition and its interpretation. For this purpose, compact
reconfigurable hardware modules, such as field programmable gate
arrays (FPGAs) are widely used.

This paper proposes a parallel FPGA-based architecture for
endmember's signature extraction. This method based on the Vertex
Component Analysis (VCA) has several advantages, namely it is
unsupervised, fully automatic, and it works without dimensionality
reduction (DR) pre-processing step. The architecture has been
designed for a low cost Xilinx Zynq board with a Zynq-7020 SoC FPGA
based on the Artix-7 FPGA programmable logic and tested using real
hyperspectral data sets collected by the NASA's Airborne Visible
Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Cuprite mining
district in Nevada. Experimental results indicate that the proposed
implementation can achieve real-time processing, while maintaining
the methods accuracy, which indicate the potential of the proposed
platform to implement high-performance, low cost embedded systems,
opening new perspectives for onboard hyperspectral image processing.