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A Modular In-Vehicle C-ITS Architecture for Sensor Data Collection, Vehicular Communications and Cloud Connectivity

Rocha, D. ; Teixeira, G. T. ; Vieira, E. ; Almeida, J. ; Ferreira, J.

Sensors Vol. 23, Nº 3, pp. 1724 - 1757, February, 2023.

ISSN (print): 1424-3210
ISSN (online): 1424-8220

Scimago Journal Ranking: 0,76 (in 2022)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.3390/s23031724

The growth of the automobile industry in recent decades and the overuse of personal vehicles have amplified problems directly related to road safety, such as the increase in traffic congestion and number of accidents, as well as the degradation of the quality of roads. At the same time, and with the contribution of climate change effects, dangerous weather events have become more common on road infrastructure. In this context, Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) and Internet of Things (IoT) solutions emerge to overcome the limitations of human and local sensory systems, through the collection and distribution of relevant data to Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs). In this paper, an intra- and inter-vehicle sensory data collection system is presented, starting with the acquisition of relevant data present on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, collected through the vehicle’s On-Board-Diagnostics II (OBD-II) port, as well as on an on-board smartphone device and possibly other additional sensors. Short-range communication technologies, such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Wi-Fi, and ITS-G5, are employed in conjunction with long-range cellular networks for data dissemination and remote cloud monitoring. The results of the experimental tests allow the analysis of the road environment, as well as the notification in near real-time of adverse road conditions to drivers. The developed data collection system reveals itself as a potentially valuable tool for improving road safety and to iterate on the current Road Weather Models (RWMs).