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Positive and Negative Evidence Accumulation Clustering for Sensor Fusion: An Application to Heartbeat Clustering

Márquez, D. ; Félix, P. ; Garcia, C. ; Tejedor, J. ; Fred, A. L. N. ; Otero, A.

Sensors Vol. 19, Nº 21, pp. 1 - 31, October, 2019.

ISSN (print): 1424-3210
ISSN (online): 1424-8220

Scimago Journal Ranking: 0,65 (in 2019)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.3390/s19214635

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Abstract
In this work, a new clustering algorithm especially geared towards merging data arising from multiple sensors is presented. The algorithm, called PN-EAC, is based on the ensemble clustering paradigm and it introduces the novel concept of negative evidence. PN-EAC combines both positive evidence, to gather information about the elements that should be grouped together in the final partition, and negative evidence, which has information about the elements that should not be grouped together. The algorithm has been validated in the electrocardiographic domain for heartbeat clustering, extracting positive evidence from the heartbeat morphology and negative evidence from the distances between heartbeats. The best result obtained on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database yielded an error of 1.44%. In the St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics 12-Lead Arrhythmia Database database (INCARTDB), an error of 0.601% was obtained when using two electrocardiogram (ECG) leads. When increasing the number of leads to 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12, the algorithm obtains better results (statistically significant) than with the previous number of leads, reaching an error of 0.338%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clustering algorithm that is able to process simultaneously any number of ECG leads. Our results support the use of PN-EAC to combine different sources of information and the value of the negative evidence.