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Algorithms for estimating the location of remote nodes using smartphones

Pedro, D. ; Tomic, S. ; Bernardo, L. ; Beko, M.B, ; Oliveira, R. ; Dinis, R. ; Pinto, P. ; Amaral , P.

IEEE Access Vol. 7, Nº 1, pp. 33713 - 33727, December, 2019.

ISSN (print): 2169-3536
ISSN (online):

Journal Impact Factor: 1,270 (in 2015)

Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2904241

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Abstract
Locating the position of a remote node on a wireless network is becoming more relevant, as we move forward in the Internet of things and in autonomous vehicles. This paper proposes a new system to implement the location of remote nodes. A new prototype Android application has been developed to collect real measurements and to study the performance of several smartphone’s sensors and location algorithms, including an innovative one, based on second order cone programming (SOCP) relaxation. The application collects the WiFi access points information and the terminal location. An internal odometry module developed for the prototype is used when Android’s service is unavailable.
This paper compares the performance of existing location estimators given in closed form, an existing SOCP one, and the new SOCP location estimator proposed, which has a reduced complexity. An algorithm to merge measurements from non- identical terminals is also proposed. Cooperative and terminal stand-alone operations are compared, showing a higher performance for SOCP-based ones, that are capable of estimating the path loss exponent and the transmission power. Heterogeneous terminals were also used in the tests. Our results show that accurate positioning of static remote entities can be achieved using a single smartphone. On the other hand, accurate real-time positioning of the mobile terminal is provided when three or more scattered terminal nodes cooperate sharing the samples taken synchronously.